Ukraine in Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary (1764-1917)

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Galicia and West Ukraine in Austria-Hungary

In Russian Empire

As a result of partition of Poland between Russia, Austria and Prussia in 1772-1795, respectively. Galicia was taken over by the Austrian Habsburgs, and Right-Bank Ukraine was Russian possession. 

To the Russian Empire moved Right-Bank Ukraine, Volyn and Podolia. In these areas were created three provinces: Kiev, Volyn (center – Zhitomir) and Podolsky (center – Kamenetz-Podolsk). Catherine II in the secret instructions to the prosecutor-general to the prince of the Senate Viazemskii gave the following settings: "Little Russia, Livonia, Finland essence province kotoryya straightened konfirmovannymi their privileges, violate onium renunciation of all suddenly very unseemly was used … These are the province, also Smolensk, should the lightest ways cause them to Russified and would cease to look like wolves in the forest ".

Ukrainian (Hetmanschina) lands in Russian Empire

Up until the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774 land in the lower reaches of the Dnieper, the Sea of ​​Azov and the Crimea remained under the control of the Crimean Khanate. These territories were ceded to the Russian Empire by Kucuk Kaynardzhiysky Peace Treaty (1774), and then began their colonization of the eastern Slavs, and Serbs, Greeks, Germans and Jews, which the Russian government granted the right to settle in those places. On the southern lands were laid new cities: Ekaterinoslav, Nikolaev, Kherson, Odessa, Novorossiysk, Sevastopol, Alexandrovsk, Mariupol, and others. Were formed by the new province: Kiev, Kharkov, Yecaterinoslav, Tauris (Simferopol), Novorossiysk, Kherson. 

Catherine II abolished the Hetmanate in 1764, and in 1775 abolished the Sich. The last Hetman of Ukraine in the Russian Empire was Count Kirill Razumovsky. 

Until the end of XVIII – early XIX century, Ukraine was largely agrarian edge. 

In 1862, the royal government banned Ukrainian Sunday schools, which were in Russia more than 100 circular of the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire Pyotr Valuev, 18 July 1863, a significant portion of the publications in the Little Russian language was banned. 

In 1876, Tsar Alexander II issued Ems decree that restricts the use of Ruthenian language in the Russian Empire, was forbidden to publish books in the Little Russian language, theater and so on. D. However, 8 years later, in 1884 in Kharkov was published 4 languid works playwright Kropivnitskogo. Decree officially repealed in 1905.

 

Western Ukraine in Poland and Austro-Hungarian Empire

The conflict between the Poles and Ruthenians (now the self-name – Ukrainians) in Galicia then died away, then flared up, depending on the internal policies of the Austrian government in the national question. Supporting one or the other side, the Austrian government has created a balance in Galicia, giving, in the final analysis, the ability to manage this region. Ukrainians were given the opportunity to start learning in their mother tongue in primary schools and to introduce their teaching in the public schools.

Galicia and West Ukraine in Austria-Hungary
In the Russian Empire as a secret circular of the Minister of Internal Affairs Valuev in 1863, and then Ems decree of Alexander II in 1876 were imposed severe restrictions on the use of the Ukrainian language in print. From this moment the publication of Ukrainian literature started to move from Russia to Austria-Hungary turned into a kind of refuge for Ukrainian writers. Lviv for a while and moved to the largest Ukrainian public figure at the time of M. Drahomanov. By the end of the XIX century Galicia became known as "Ukrainian Piedmont", likening her role to that played by the Kingdom of Sardinia in the unification of Italy. M. Hrushevsky, who in 1894 moved from Kiev to Lviv, argued that Galicia was the "best part of the Ukrainian nation, which has long overtaken the poor Russian Ukraine" and that "until now was Galicia and Ukraine stood or walked Galicia." in the 1830s, came to Galicia wave Slavophile movement has found support from the Galician Ruthenians, especially young people. So, Marcian Shashkevich Jacob Golovatsky Vahylevycha and Ivan, nicknamed "Russian trinity," first released Galician-Russian literary almanac "Mermaid Dnistrova" in the local dialect. In this anthology sound idea of ​​"one of the Slavic peoples," which includes a "Ruska" people, extending east to the Don. Although the northern boundary settlement "ruska" people was not available on the general meaning of the almanac, under the "s what" Little Russian people understand. However, it was noted that Great Russians – "Sister" Galicians, and each row of ancient Russia, along with Kiev sounded Novgorod. At the end of the XIX century by the Austrian authorities started a campaign of harassment "Muscophiles." Against them was initiated by a series of lawsuits initiated by the so-called "process of Olga Grabar," one of the defendants in which included Adolf Dobriansky, his daughter Olga, Ivan N., Benedict Ploschansky, Osip Markov and others. Fear of penetration in Russia ideas Ukrainian separatism from Galicia made ​​in 1909, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Finance to decide on the allocation of funds for the regular "aid the Carpathian Russian." In 1911 Stolypin released at the same time 15 thousand. Rubles for expenses for the elections to the Austrian Parliament. It was about helping organizations "moskvofilskoy" orientation. Every year, at the request of Minister of Internal Affairs allocated 60 thousand rubles and 25 rubles directly through the Minister of Finance. Distribution and transfer of state amounts to the maintenance and development of Russian cultural institutions Carpathian Slavs were fully in charge of VA Bobrinsky and chamberlain Gizycko. Government trust them, these amounts are not controlling them and without requiring a report to the expenditure of money. This was done in the first place, in order to avoid possible complications at the diplomatic level. In May 1910, the Austrian authorities have closed all 'Russophile' organization Bucovina ("Society of Russian women", "Karpat", "Russian-Orthodox People's House", "Russian-Orthodox Orphanage", "Russian-Orthodox Reading Room", "Russian squad "), as well as Russian bursa (a hostel for young students) in Chernivtsi and Siret. Business property was confiscated. The reason for the prohibition of activities of Russian organizations were allegations of espionage and treason. During the First World War, the Austro-Hungarian authorities in Galicia and Pidkarpatiya subjected to repression local Ruthenian population, sympathetic to Russia. Over twenty thousand Ukrainians-Russophile enclosed in the Austrian concentration camp in the town of Talergof, Styria, and the fortress of Terezin, Czech Republic. The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the cause of the legalization movement for autonomy of Ukraine. During the First World War took place in Galicia active hostilities. In Galicia was formed legion Ukrainian Sich Riflemen, who fought on the side of the Austrian army. By the fall of 1914, during the Battle of Lviv was occupied by Russian troops almost the entire eastern part of Galicia, Galician formed the General Government (with the center in Lviv), which controls the edge until the summer of 1915, when the region was abandoned as a result of the German offensive. In 1916 the eastern part of Galicia was touched "Brusilovsky breakthrough."

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