Travelling by Kiev-Zhytomyr manors

0
1106
Discalced Carmelites monastery in Berdichev

Going for 2-3 days in a simple trip to the south- west of Kiev, you will see lots of interesting manors in a different styles of XVII-XIX centuries, which appeared at the crossing of the Polish and Russian cultural fronts, eternal battle for influence over Ukraine . With these places associated with the names of famous patrons: Tereshchenko and prominent French writer Honore de Balzac. And only here you can get acquainted with the way of life of the current major Ukrainian landowners, real "agricultural oligarchs". Individual road sections along the route are in a very bad condition.

Zhytomyr

location and main square

Zhitomir City is a small oblast center on the high banks of the Teterev ("Blackcock") river  and its tributary Kamenka ("Heater") . According to legend, founded in 884 by warrior, Zhitomir,  who had fled to the Drevlians woods. He was associated to Kievan princes Askold and Dir killed by Prince Oleg . On the bank of the Kamenka were found the remains of the ancient city. In X . Zhitomir became part of the Kievan state, since the XIV century was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the same time a small castle with five towers was erected, it was ruined eventually (only earthen ditches preserved) . In 1569 the city was captured by the Poles. In 1648 ravaged by the Cossacks of hetman B. Khmelnytsky. Since 1668 a half century was the capital of Kiev province of Rzeczpospolita, then became the administrative center if Volyn province of the Russian Empire which was founded in 179. During the struggle for independence in the beginning of XX century UNR government worked here for a while. After heavy damage during World War II not many landmarks survived. The city is connected with the names of the writer Sholem Aleichem, aircraft designer S. Korolyov .

[nggallery id=1]

Denishi

The village Denishi is on the road Zhitomir – Chudnov and known since the XVIII century as Danaian. In the XIX century belonged to a well-known philanthropist and sugar breeder M.Tereschenko. Park and ruins of Tereshchenko palace preserved, which were built by architect. P.Gollandsky. The village is known by more picturesque scenery of granite shores of Teterev river. Nowadays sanatorium "Denishi" is a popular base for training climbers.

 
[nggallery id=2]

Trigorye

Trigorye (Three-Hills) little village is located 25 km south-west of Zhitomir on the bank of Teterev river near Denishi. Appeared in the XVI century as a settlement at Trigorskoye Chudniv Transfiguration Orthodox monastery, which works to this time. It is less than 200 citizens in Trigorye and most of them dwell and work in monastery.

 
Chudnov road pointer
[nggallery id=3]

Chudniv

Chudnov (ukr. "Chudniv") is district center on the Teterev river and its located 50 km south-west of Zhytomyr towards Khmelnytsky. Most likely its name is associated with the name of the Kiev Boyar Chudina , but folk tales derive the placename from the word "miracle" ("chudo"). Allegedly, the old city miraculously managed to hold off the attack of thousands of Tatar hordes, what is partrayed on the arms of the city: a castle with uplifted hand of knight with a sword over it is depicted on the shield. In 1471 in Kiev land lustration was mentioned small Chudnovsky castle with three cannons, which banks were visible on one of the hills above the Teterev river since the XIX century. Subsequently the town belonged to Ostrozhsky Princes, then became the property of the princes Sangushko. In 1660 under Chudnov Muscovite army of Boyar B. Sheremetev capitulated to the Polish army of Jan II Casimir. Then in Chudnov Y. Khmelnytsky signed Slobodyshche treatise (Chudnovsky agreement) between Ukraine and Poland, according to which the torn Perei Union of Ukraine with Muscovy (as a result,  Cossack Hetman state was divided on the Right Bank and Left Bank , which actually started the split of Ukraine) . Preserved Catholic church built in 1760 by Bishop Gorchinskii who attended the last Polish king Stanislaw August Poniatowski. Well preserved wooden church of the Virgin (1772) and several other Orthodox churches, old watermill.

 
[nggallery id=4]

Turchinovka

Turchinovka village is situated 10 km east of Chudnov. It is not the motherland of Ukrainian politic Turchinov 🙂 Founded in the XVIII century. In 1873, at the expense of the parishioners was built a wooden church of Alexander Nevsky. In the end of XIX century. Turchinovka ownership in the family sugar breeder Tereshchenko, who built a beautiful manor house and located the park. Since Soviet times, in the Tereshchenko`s estate vocational college number 30 was disposed.

 

Berdichev

Discalced Carmelites monastery
[nggallery id=5]

The old Jewish town of Berdichev, sung in folklore, located at the intersection of several roads and rail routes. Known since 1320, when this area was donated to the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas Tyshkevichas genus but the official founding date is considered to be 1545, when Berdichev expressly mentioned in written sources. In the XVI century. Tyszkiewicz built a castle on the bank of Gnilopyat river, which in 1630 was donated to the monastery of the Discalced Carmelites. Magnificent architectural complex with defensive walls and the church preserved and restored. The rapid development of the city as a commercial center were contributed fairs conducted from 1765. In the XIX century . Berdichev was the fifth most populous city in Ukraine, here was the largest Jewish community placed. Numerous buildings of several synagogues, historical buildings downtown are preserved. In 1850, in Berdichev Honore de Balzac was married to Countess Evelina Hanska .

 

Chervonoe

 
Tereschenko manor in Chervonoe
Chervonoe is a village 25 km northeast of Berdichev, 15 km from Andrushevka. One of the centers of the sugar industry in Zhytomyr region. According to legend , the name associated with fairs placed here, which sold a lot of red (Chervonoe) tissue. According to another version, in the vicinity of the village were deposits of red clay . Chervonoe founded in 1624 by Brest-Litovsk Voivod Y. Tiskevicius . The documents referred to in the village From the end of 1737. Since ending of XVIII century was owned by tycoons Groholsky who built a grand palace in neo-gothic style here. The new owners of the genus Tereshchenko rebuilt palace with modern materials and technology in the beginning XX century. Now dilapidated building was transferred to the convent of the Nativity. The complex structures of a sugar factory Tereshchenko used today, here F. Tereshchenko conducted experiments on the aircraft industry .

Ruzhin

 
Ruzhin
Ruzhin village is district center on the river Rostavitsa between Skvira and Kazatin. Known since 1071 as Skorgorodok. After Mongol-Tatar invasion restored under the name Shcherbov. In 1569 these lands became part of Poland and were donated by King Stefan Batory to nobleman K. Ruzhinsky who in 1591 renamed Shcherbov into Ruzhin. In 1815, Earl Kalinowski built church of the Sacred Body and Blood of Jesus Christ, preserved to this day. In the XIX century in Ruzhin appeared a large Jewish community. Remained the main building of the synagogue, which was the residence of an influential Hasidic Rabbi Yisrael Ruzhin. On the territory ruled by the local collective farm the former estate of Chelishchevy landlords located, which in 1856 was sold in auction to landowner A. Zlotnitsky. According to legend, the manor house and church are connected by an underground passage. There is a water mill ( 1929 ) in the old dam across the river.

Verkhovnia

 
Honore de Balzak manor

Verhovnia is the village on Verhovenka river 65 km east of Berdichev. First mentioned in the Polish documents in 1600 as a possession of the Lubomirski, then Skorunski genus. Since 1780 is the property of graph V.Hanskoy . In 1847-50 years great French writer Honore de Balzac lived and worked here on the drama " Stepmom " and " Human comedy ". Subsequently he married the widow of graph, Evelina Hanska , whom he had got acquainted with in Switzerland after years of correspondence. There's Palace Ghanaian (1800) in the classical style, two outhouses, a part of the underground passage, a park and a church – Ghanaian family tomb ( 1810 ) – everything is preserved.

Skvira

 
Skvira
[nggallery id=6]
Skvira city situated on the river Skvirka 35 km west of ("Bila Tserkva") White Church. First mentioned in a document from the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vladimir Olgerdovich in 1390 , although it was grounded before. Perhaps the name comes from the old Russian word "Skvira" (cleft) , which may be due to the nature of the river bed that's just in this place is a gorge. In the XV century it was a fortified settlement , surrounded by ramparts. Wooden Skvirsky castle stood on an high promontory formed by the Skvirka river and its sleeve Domantovka. In XIV-XV centuries city ​​repeatedly exposed of devastating raids of nomads. In 1591 the Polish King Sigismund III issued a certificate of ownership of these lands to prince N. Ruzhinsky. Soon Skvira received Magdeburg rights, a new castle built here. Since 1648 – hundred-city (more than 100 inhabitants), since 1793 – official city center of the county (now the district). In 1846, Taras Shevchenko stayed in the preserved building of post . The city had a large Jewish community (synagogue preserved) . Reconstructed building of Zemska (township) administration is example of architectural Art Nouveau (now – Knitting Factory ). Another monument is male gymnasium, built in 1909 by means of a patron P. Suvchinsky .

Buki

 
nature view in Buki village in Zhitomyr region

A small village Buki on Rastavitsa river became known recently as hacienda of a major Skvirsky entrepreneur I. Suslov. Ancient Russian fort on this site dates back to the XI-XII centuries . Polovtsian stone idol found here. In the XIX century the village belonged to the landowner S. Abramovich (manor house preserved) in 1854 in neighboring Chubintsy was built the watermill which is considered to be the one of the oldest in the Kyiv region. In the mid -1990s local businessman I. Suslov laid landscaped park, built a dam and mini-hydro station. In 2007, a grand temple complex built, which is dominated by the Church of St. Martyr Eugenia .

Bila Tserkva

 

 
main square
[nggallery id=7]
Bila Tserkva ("White Church") is the largest and one of the most interesting cities in the Kiev region. Located on the banks of the river Ros 80 km south of Kiev-Odessa highway E-95. City of St. George founded on the southern borders of Kievan-Rus Prince Yaroslav the Wise in 1032. The present name was first mentioned in the Lithuanian period in 1334 and due to the color of the walls of the first stone church, remained at place the city burned by the Mongols (fundament found at the site of the princely citadel on Castle Hill, reconstruction planned). In the XVIII-XX centuries Bila Tserkva was in the possession of the Polish magnates Branicki who were significantly contributed to the development of the city. Most of the surviving monuments belong to this period. In particular, the famous arboretum "Alexandria".

Mazepintsy

 
fair in Mazepintsy
Village Mazepintsy above Kamenka river is located 20 km northwest of Bila Tserkva. Was founded in the XVI century. Since 1544 Mazepintsy belonged to Mazepa-Koledinsky gentry family. In 1625 there was born an outstanding Ukrainian statesman and politician, hetman of Ukraine, Ivan Mazepa . After the defeat of Mazepa, who came on the side of the Swedes near Poltava against the Russian Tsar Peter I, in Mazepians took place the massacre of several dozen of Cossacks. Subsequently, the village belonged to the Polish landowner and archaeologist E. Rulikovsky. In 1994 there was established the first in Ukraine monument to Mazepa, and recently opened a memorial board and park of Cossack glory.

Kovalevka

 
Kovalevka
Kovalevka is exemplary village of "wild capitalism" era. It`s the patrimony of "Svitanok" agrofirm and the family of the former governor of Kiev, Zasukha. By legend, village based by blacksmith Nazarenko on the bank of river Kamenka in the XVI century . Flourished in the 1990s . , When the family lived here Drought entered the inner circle of the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma . The village is striking for the Ukrainian heartland incredible cleanliness, quality of roads, luxury infrastructure : the Church of Nativity , hospital, recreation center, a gymnasium, a chic restaurant "Zemlya Mrii" ("Earth of a dream"), a pizzeria, a beauty salon, a pond with swans and pavilions, lawns and flowerbeds. Grandiose mansion of Zasukha is stands out distinctly.

Fastow

 
Fastow Bernardine monastery
Major regional center Fastow which is 70 km southwest of Kiev, in ancient times was called Khvastov ("boast"). Revival after the Mongol invasions started from the XVI century, when Fastow was in possession of princes Rozhanovsky. In 1601, the city received Magdeburg rights and became the residence of the bishops. Jesuit College was opened, Bernardine Monastery was also based here. In the end of XVII century Fastow became regimental center, residence of illustrious Cossack Colonel S. Paliy, who built the temples in the city and contributed to the population of these lands. In Koliyivshchyna times residence of Cossack chieftains N. Shvachka and A. Zhurba was located in Fastow. Starting of rail traffic in Fastow in 1870 facilitated a fast development of industry: among other a distillery, boiler and mechanical plant and brewery A. Siebert , which now produces beer brand "Zibert"  were opened here. In 1918, at the railway station " Fastow" so called "pre-accession treaty"  was signed which preceded Act of  WUPR UPR united into a single state ("Act Zluky" – Act of Unification). Now on this day, as well as Unity Day, celebrations take place here annually.

 

Tarasovka

Tarasovka

Tomashovka village on the bank of Irpen river is located 18 km north of Fastow and now officially named Tarasovka. According to legend it is founded by surviving participants of Cossack revolt against the Poles at the grave of their dead Ataman Tomas. Until the end of XVIII century these lands belonged to the Metropolitan of Kiev, and then became the property of G. Dolgoruky , who sold them to Mazowiecki nobleman I. Hoetsky soon , deputy of polish Sejm. His descendants built sugar mill and a steam mill in Tomashovka. In 1903, the last owner of the estate, C. Hoetsky, built  the manor by architect V. Kulikovs, who was the author of railway-station buildings in Fastow and the Office of South Western Railways in Kiev. In Soviet times, in the Hoetsky manor house school was located. Now Rizopolozhenchesky Monastery placed there.

Yasnogorodka

 
ostrich farm
The village Yasnogorodka is 25 km from Kiev. In the XVII century it was the residence of the princes Shuisky. Palace built in the XVIII century is not preserved. The picturesque landscape and ecological purity makes village for attractive the construction of suburban housing and recreational facilities. Since 2001, tourists can visit the largest ostrich farm in Ukraine.

 

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here