According to the 1920 census, the population of Soviet Ukraine was 25.5 million people. Of these, 20.9 million rural residents, and the city of 4.6 million.
As you can see from the picture, Ukraine was not the same territory as it is now. During Soviet period Ukraine was significantly increased. Lenin, inter alia, partially added Slobozhanshina and Donbass to Ukrainian Soviet Republic.
December 30, 1922, by signing the Union Treaty, together with the Ukrainian SSR of the RSFSR, the Byelorussian SSR and the Transcaucasian SFSR became part of the USSR. In 1923 he transferred to the USSR village Lugano and the surrounding area of the Don region of the RSFSR. In August 1924, Taganrog and Shahtinskii County were returned to the Russian Federation. October 16, 1925 from Kursk province were transferred to the Ukrainian SSR: the territory of the former county Putivl (without Krupetskii parish) Krenichanskaya town Graivoronsky County and two incomplete parish Graivoronsky and Belgorod counties. April 1, 1926 Semyonovskaya Novozybkov county town of Gomel province RSFSR passed the Ukrainian SSR. Also in 1926, Trinity County town Valuisky Voronezh province transferred into the district Kupyansk USSR.
In the years after the Civil War policy of indigenization (Ukrainianization) led to an increase in the number of Ukrainian schools and universities. The Soviet government pursued a policy under the slogan of "national in form, Soviet in content." However, at the end of the 1920s, leadership of the CPSU (b) change the overall policy, the Communist Party of Ukraine has undergone cleaning for "nationalist deviation." As a result of the terror of the 1930s destroyed many Ukrainian writers, intellectuals.
1930 became a very controversial period in the history of Ukraine, in which instead of large-scale events:
- cannibalization, collectivization and the Holodomor;
- Stalinist repression;
At this time in the Western Ukraine, which became part of Poland, a policy of Polonization intensified national oppression. The answer to it was the rise of the nationalist movement, to immediately take violent forms.
Since coming to power in Poland in a coup in 1926 Jozef Pilsudski here by the authoritarian regime, known as "reorganization." Political opposition was pursued by legal means and methods of force. With respect to national minorities, a policy of "cultural suppression," which in the autumn of 1930, after numerous provocations and terrorist attacks Ukrainian nationalist organizations against the Polish population grew into a mass repressions against the Ukrainian population of Galicia and Volyn ("pacification"). Units of the Polish Police and the army have been introduced in more than 800 villages, was arrested more than two thousand people have been eliminated Ukrainian organization, burned about 500 homes. Part of the "pacification" began Ukrainian pogroms by Polish chauvinist groups. It came down to the fact that in 1932 the League of Nations condemned the actions of the Polish Government in relation to the Ukrainian population.
According to the census in 1931 in Western Ukraine population of 8.9 million people, including 5.6 million Ukrainians and Poles 2.2 million.
In 1938-1939 autonomous Carpathian Ukraine was part of Czechoslovakia as a result of the Munich Agreement and the division of Czechoslovakia invaded Hungary.
As a result of secret additional protocol on the delimitation of areas of interest to the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union and the subsequent Polish campaign the Red Army in 1939 to USSR forcibly annexed Western Ukraine, and in 1940 – Northern Bukovina and Ukrainian part of Bessarabia .