This is a first article where we will try to classify and explore the main problems facing Ukraine in its modern history and perspectives to solve them and avoid new ones. All our site anyway rising up different subjects of functioning of Ukrainian state and automatically tries to describe and determine ongoing problems in that particulary branch. But now we are sterting the serie of articles which will help a foreigner to understand better the "mysterious Ukrainian soul" and the problems of Ukraine from inside. Another words – we try to begin the social exploration of the main Ukrainian problems.
Problem of youth
Describing: The younger generation is left without adequate social guidelines. The breakdown of traditional forms of socialization of young people increased personal responsibility for their own destiny, putting it in front of the necessity of choosing, revealed unwillingness of most of them to engage in new social relations. Choice of life way was determined not by the abilities and interests of the young person and the particular circumstances. This is the first message that nobody wants to have business with problems of young generation.
Among the social problems of the Ukrainian society, which, according to the Ukrainian youth are the most important: unemployment, rising prices, low wages, a general decline in living standards, rising crime, impoverishment of the population, drug addiction and AIDS. Among the problems related to healthy living: the environment, ecology, poor medical care, abuse of smoking, lack of opportunities for physical culture and sports, alcoholism, lack of awareness of a healthy lifestyle.
A particularly disturbing trends include the decline in prestige of general and vocational education, increasing the number of young people entering the labor force with low levels of education, with no desire to continue learning. In youth reigns high level of involuntary unemployment and the lack of modern youth housing program. This indicates a number of problems not only in the education system, but also in society as a whole.
Educational potential of young people are not being implemented adequately, due to the mismatch between the education system and labor market needs. There is a tendency to reduce the quality of education through the low social prestige of the teaching profession. In education, now there are only real enthusiasts, because the teacher's salary according to the State Statistics Committee of 199 conventional units, which is 1,700 hryvnia, and it is not only the present, and the naked enthusiasm. Separate issue – the critical deterioration of the material and technical base of educational institutions at all levels and insufficient pace of its modernization. For example, means that now the whole sphere of production and business aims at the training of skilled workers make up only 1-1.5 per cent of gross domestic product of Ukraine. And this figure, at least, must be three times larger.
The problems faced by young people in finding work is the presence of part-time work and the need to have the necessary "connections". Less significant constraints such as the fact that employers are reluctant to hire young people, or require it to a lot of knowledge and skills. In the group of young people's own business has 6% of young people. The main obstacle to start and run a business – the lack of start-up capital (58%) and bribery of officials (38%) and a high tax rate, the tax burden (37%).
Effective means of promoting youth employment: first, to oblige institutions to provide graduates with the first job (44%) – (as a result, after a graduation from universities require from students an inquire, that he was applied for the job. In case of not providing such inquire a student having problems with diploma), and secondly, to establish enterprises quotas for young people (41%). The current state of health of the Ukrainian youth can not meet the society. In recent years, young people there was a significant spread of socio-related diseases. Worsened the epidemiological situation of HIV / AIDS, the number of drug addicts among minors increased by 6-8 times the mortality in this group increased by 40 times; every third child is born with abnormalities in the development of the nervous system; resources are directed to the treatment rather than disease prevention and promotion of healthy lifestyles.
On practice: We have a big problem when a state doesn`t care about its citizens. The uttermost indifference to the problems of youth brings a new problems: severe social stratification of youth by family income, by ideological views of the families, by geographical factor etc., extreme apathy of young people to education, self-development, some other professional and personal achievements: "What for I need to try anything if nobody f*cking cares about me and anyway I have low chances to win through the all kinds of sh*t on my way to success". As a result wed have big problems of social isolation, losing belief, trust and confidence, narcomania, youth alcogolism, household murders and suicides.
Another crucial problem for our nationality, and even for civilization, if yo want, it is tendency for overall dullness of young people. they don`t want to learn, to achieve knowledge, therefore they a dumbers and can receive and internalize any ideas which are delivered to them from media, politicians, they a susceptible for manipulations. So in some time we would have a society of marginals, who will be able to make ANYTHING for money, fake idols, fake patriotism or just for fun to be on TV. This is no joke.
We have almost completely destroyed system of youth sport. Everything is for money or on enthusiasm of different interested people. West people might be shocked how we can survive and bring up our children without any scout organizations, children`s camps, student sport leagues etc. Yes, situation is seemed to be fatal for any developed country.
But Ukrainians, as real East Slavic nation has forces in it to bear the most severe trials. We have enough endeavor to take all the strokes of fate. And we have comparatively good indicators of crime, mortality, drug addiction and other to that completely awful state of affairs in Ukraine.
I must emphasize that the biggest role in this situation plays the institution of family (which is solving EVERY problem of their kids) and elder (soviet) generation, which saved the sense of humanity and can transfer it to younger people.
Solution: Current national youth policy does not fully solve the social and psychological problems of improving the system of care and education of young people, methods of implementation of socio-economic and spiritual needs. It`s necessary to develop a program of national and patriotic education, aimed at overcoming the fragmentation of young people from different regions of Ukraine and the consolidation of the Ukrainian nation.
Through the education system we need to maintain and develop the existing traditions, spiritual achievements of social programs to protect against the negative effects of the global cultural integration process that led to change in attitudes, values, social well-being of young people.
To make it real we need to create social institutions which could reduce the pressure on family. But this is impossible without changing the corrupted authorities and increasing the overall national welfare.
Problems of young families
The family is the basic unit of society and is entitled to the protection of society and the state. Currently in Ukraine given social institution covered by the crisis, which is reflected directly on the young family. Crisis is to reduce detonation fertility, moral depravity of youth, a decline in morals, in reducing the commitment to the future, etc. These issues need to be addressed, this perspective requires the progressive development of society.
Experts note 3 features a young family in Ukraine:
- A limited amount of time to pass the spouses of certain stages of socialization: education, occupation, workplace;
- Inadequate material and financial security (for arrangement of family life: the purchase of housing, welfare and so on). Today, per capita income in young families is 1.5 times less than the national average. In this case, 69% of young families live below the poverty line (!!!). The housing problem is caused by the reduction of housing construction, phasing the practice of providing free housing state and prohibitively expensive housing on the open market;
- Low psychological adaptation to family life. 18% of young families are in need of psychological counseling. The model of the future family relations forming In young families the distribution of power and responsibilities, spiritual connection between the couple, finding that type of relationship that would satisfy both of them produced by common family values. Young couple faced psychological problems of domestic adaptation: address issues of leadership, sharing of domestic loads.
Consequence of the crisis of the family is a demographic crisis. Particular attention must be issue related to the implementation of the most important functions of the family – its reproductive purpose. In most countries of the world care about childbearing included into state policy. Despite the extremely low birth rate of detonation, our state is not enough stimulates this process. In some regions of Ukraine is poorly supported by large families, lack of focus on preparing young people for family life and responsible parenthood.
Measurements of the state of the modern family show that both in the world and in Ukraine in there is process of changing of the family type. A civil marriage becomes more widespread. As experts in this field, such tendencies in Ukraine are caused by socio-economic crisis. According to the research of the Institute of Youth in Ukraine, 43% of young people point to the lack of funds as their main problem; fear of unemployment to some extent experienced by about 70% of young people; Global problem of today's youth is discontent society in which there is no order, there is no guaranteed future. Ukrainian law does not provide for a mechanism to support young families, which is why the only way to maintain a satisfactory standard of living is to help parents.
The problem of employment of young specialists, low salary, dissatisfaction secondary jobs pushes young people looking for a job in another city or even go abroad. Work related to the prolonged absence of the house, is not conducive to strengthening families, creating an atmosphere in her love, understanding, kindness.
The complex nature of the problems young family is the cause of the difficulties which arise when developing individual programs of youth policy relating to the humanitarian sphere, the sphere of economy, culture, values, recreation, and leisure. Accepted Ukrainian state measures mainly addressed to an individual and take into account the interests of the little family as a social institution.
Analysis of the current situation of the Ukrainian society shows the need to create a focused program of state support for young family in Ukraine. It should be laid down operating mechanisms for young families own their housing, social, financial and other problems. It is about creating a favorable space for the functioning of the family, the conditions for self-realization of its interests.
Thus, the global way to solve social problems, and in particular, the problems of young families in Ukraine – is the stabilization of the economy, overcoming the economic crisis. New political and legal and economic-economic institutions actively developed, but has not yet developed into a single system, which enables to solve the most urgent problems of a young family.
On practice: We have a very rapidly aging people and also young families. I`ll explain. We have to earn money. Everyday. So it`s no time to bother with problems of another people. In such conditions we bringing up our children and they accept the model of behavior. We work so hard that don`t notice the ticking of the time. Op, teh children are young people, op – your parents are old and you must take care of them. The life past.
Many young families begin their common way with parents or with grandparents in same dwelling and have an additional burden of duties. Most of them have no time to live for their own, to travel or just to rest in a week-end.
We born. Then we go to school, then university or college, than work and attempts to start a family. In 23-27 years most of our people are already old as they will just dive into kaleidoscope of life problems and struggling with them all life long with no chance to take rest. And maybe in the old age your grand-children will give you a glass of water (as my grandma says). This is awful. Another nations and countries feel the same problems. But in our particular situation they are most acute.
Solution: First of all, solving the economic problems will solve the large part of our social problems. And everything was described in the first problem