Cossack first appearances
Official information about the appearance of the Cossacks in the lower reaches of the Dnieper date from the end of the XV century (maybe it happened before).
Ever since the days of the Great Horde (Mongol Empire) in the late XV – early XVI centuries on the Dnieper and the islands of the Dnieper rapids, outside the administrative jurisdiction of any State had started to settle a cursory people from all over Russia (as of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russia, and of the Grand Duchy of Moscow) – the so-called "zimoviki" ("winterers") who lived mainly by hunting and fishing.
In the district where they live in the lower reaches of the Dnieper, they were called Zaporozhye Cossacks, or, that is living "beyond the rapids" ("za porogami") (of Dnepr).
By the beginning of the XVI century Cossacks formed a considerable military force, annoying the neighbors. However, the neighbors behaved "restless." Constant threat of invasion was in Moscow, and in the limits of the Lithuanian side of the Crimeans.
As a result, in 1524, during the reign of Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Sigismund I was promoted a project to create an organized Cossack army, attracted to the public service to Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russian. But due to lack of funds the project had not been implemented.
In 1533, the elder of Cherkassy and Kanev, Eustace Dashkovich, offered to arrange the permanent custody of two thousand in the rapids of Lower Dnieper, but this plan was not executed as well.
First Zaporozhye Sich
To protect against Tatar raids Cossacks built a wooden fortifications – stockade called "Sich" in Old Russian.
According to researchers, the first major Zaporozhye (its prototype) was constructed at his own expense Volyn prince Dmitry (Baida) Vyshnevetsky that combined various Cossack groups and built in 1553 on a small island of Mala Khortytsya Dnieper near the modern city of Zaporizhia fortress, which lasted until in 1557. It is situated close to the pastures of the Crimean Khanate (River Water Horse, modern. River Conca, the Zaporozhye region). The main purpose of the construction of the fortress was to protect against the military campaigns of the Crimean Khanate. It is name Dmitry Vyshnevets'koho historians have attributed the beginning of association of a number of smaller and more fragmented Siches into the complex of Cossachood.
Grand Duchy of Lithuania did not have any help in the construction of the fortress Vishnevetsky. Russian kingdom, by contrast, took DI Vyshnevets'koho the service, the salary paid to him and gave him a fiefdom Belev. The Prince "for all the life-giving cross swore to serve the king for life and good pay it to the state".
After the death of DI Vyshnevets'koho in 1563 of the fortress have forgotten, but the idea of the reflection of the raids of Crimeans in the Lower Dnieper Cossacks remembered.
Non-Registered Cossack Host
While registered Cossacks considered a s a part of Polish army and sweared to serve the Polish king, non-registered or Zaporozhye Sich (the location free from any law and jurisdiction) had been created the actual image of Cossackhood in history and were the basis of modern Ukrainian ethnicity.
However, the registered Cossacks – it was only a small part of the established by the time a significant population of Zaporozhye Cossacks organized along military lines, the flow of which, starting from the second half of the XVI century, every year increased due to an increase of religious, political and economic oppression of the Orthodox in Polish-Lithuanian state.
The bulk of these Cossacks remained directly on the Zaporizhzhya Sich, either on the territory of its holdings, thus forming nereestrovoe Zaporozhian Host. Therefore, the Cossacks were not included in the registry, called Sich, witting, grassroots or nereestrovymi Cossacks.
Government Rzeczpospolita constantly sought to control and limit the ever increasing number of registered Cossacks. Therefore, throughout the existence of a registry troops at the end of the first half of XIV-XVII century, almost regularly a diet made decisions to exclude (extract) Cossacks from the registry. In this connection, there is a category of nereestrovyh Cossacks Cossacks as Discharge or vypischiki (Ukr.) .. Discharge Russian Cossacks were officially banned called Cossacks to form military units to choose their own officers and even live in the "parish" (in the field of settlement of registered Cossacks ). They are not subject to proceedings and the Cossack. They had to go back to one of the states of the then Ukrainian society (peasants or middle class). Dissatisfied with their situation, they are often passed on the Sich and actively involved in the national liberation struggle against the gentry of the Commonwealth.
Mainly in nereestrovom army was a senior at kosh (in Host) – ataman. In peacetime, the Sich was divided into smoking. Kurenёm commanded kuren chieftain.
Positions smoking and ataman were usually post peacetime. In time of war or military campaign division into smoking, as a rule, are not saved. At this time, the shelves were formed and hundreds. One regiment in time of war could have between five hundred to four thousand soldiers.
Often the Registered and nereestrovoe army united for common action. In this case, the total range in the selected Host general Hetman, who had authority over both the Sich and policemen over the Cossacks.
Cossacks were well armed as firearms: muskets and pistols – infantry, carbines and bandoletami – cavalry and melee weapons: swords, hammers, daggers, kelepami, hooks and others. According aqueous spaces Cossacks moved by a Cossack galleys – seagulls. Each gull housed 50-70 people and was armed with 4-6 small guns.
In official documents Cossacks its military organization called mostly "Zaporizhia Army", but sometimes, and signed as "chivalry Zaporozhye" or "chivalry troops Zaporizhzhya."
In addition, as a result of discrepancies management policy and a registry of the Zaporozhian Cossack chieftain Zaporizhzhya Sich at the end of the XVII century, the unity of the Zaporozhian Host, as an integrated military-political organism, has been violated, which resulted in the emergence of the term "Zaporozhian Host bottom", which are submitted Sich Cossacks, indicating very directly Sich and it controls the territory.
Ukrainian Liberatory War
In the period 1591-1638 a number of years there was a Cossack and peasant uprisings.
In 1648, the Ukrainian Cossacks rebelled because of increased harassment of the Polish magnates. Uprising led by the former centurion of registered Cossacks Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Originally Cossacks succeeded. They supported the Crimean Khanate, which then rules Islyam III Giray. At the Battle of Yellow Waters (1648) Cossack-Crimean army (Cossacks commanded Khmelnitsky and Crimeans – Tuqay Bey) gained its first victory defeating the Polish squad of Stepan Potocki. Soon followed by a victory in the Battle of Korsun (16 May 1648). Until the end of July was released the entire territory of the left bank, and by the end of August – Bratslav, Kiev, Podolsk (except Kamjanets) province on the right, as well as the eastern and southern regions of Volyn province. Exemption on the right bank associated with the name of Maxim Krivonos. In September (11-13) was won a victory near Pyliavtsi. Autumn scene of hostilities appears Galicia. September 26, began the siege of the Lwow city. Getman demanded from the Polish command and city authorities to capitulate and give the Cossacks Vyshnevets'koho J., A. Konetspolskogo. Learning that they secretly fled, Khmelnitsky, received a ransom payment for the Tatars, raised the siege and went to Zamosc. In early November, the hetman began negotiations with the Polish government, and made a truce with Jan II Kazimierz. The winning campaign in 1648 is complete. December 23, 1648 Cossacks solemnly entered Kiev.
However, in 1651 there was Berestetskaya battle, which resulted in the Polish army led by King Jan Kazimierz and Nicholas Potocki defeated the Cossacks, and in August of the same year the Lithuanian Hetman Radziwill took Kiev. Cossacks were forced to ask for help from the same-religion Russia. In 1654, Parliament was convened Pereyaslavskaya Rada (council) which has made the transition areas controlled by the rebels under the protectorate of Russia.
Russian troops backed Cossacks, which led to the Russian-Polish war (1654-1667 years). The war ended with the Treaty of Andrusovo (1667), under which the territory lying east of the Dnieper (Left-bank Ukraine) were ceded to Russia, and lying to the west (right-bank Ukraine) – remained in the Commonwealth. Armistice terms were later confirmed by a peace treaty in 1686.
In Andrusovo contract Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich put a condition of the destruction of previously printed Polish books
"All those areas in which books are printed and slagateli also printers or Drukar, death and executed books collected were burned, and continue to a strong order book was dishonest thieves anyone … never published under penalty of death. "
In 1672 was issued a royal order prohibiting the publication of books in Polish and Latin:
"… In every place where people inflict great rank order with plenty of strong reinforcement to the people of Polish and latynskiya printing books no one in their own homes is clearly not kept, and would bring and gave the governor. "
All this was done primarily for harmonization of the content of religious books, as previously printed on lands Rzeczpospolita books are often very different from the books published by the Moscow diocese.